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How Do I? Determine if someone has been 'involuntarily terminated' for purposes of the new COBRA subsidy?
March 02, 2009

Individuals who have been "involuntarily terminated" from employment may be eligible for a temporary subsidy to help pay for COBRA continuation coverage. The temporary assistance is part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (2009 Recovery Act), and is aimed at helping individuals who have lost their jobs in our troubled economy. However, not every individual who has lost his or her job qualifies for the COBRA subsidy. This article discusses what qualifies as "involuntary termination" for purposes of the temporary COBRA subsidy.


The 2009 Recovery Act temporarily allows individuals involuntarily terminated from their employment between September 1, 2008 and December 31, 2009 to elect to pay 35 percent of their COBRA coverage and be treated as having paid the full amount. In most cases, the former employer pays the remaining 65 percent of the premium and is reimbursed by claiming a payroll tax credit.

Some individuals who are "qualified beneficiaries" may also be eligible for the COBRA subsidy. They include spouses and dependent children. However, domestic partners generally do not qualify for the COBRA subsidy.

Income limits

The COBRA subsidy is excludable from gross income. However, individuals with modified adjusted gross incomes (MAGI) between $125,000 and $145,000 ($250,000 and $290,000 for married couples filing jointly) must repay part of the subsidy. For individuals with MAGI exceeding $145,000 and married couples with MAGI exceeding $290,000, the full amount of the subsidy must be repaid as additional tax.

Coverage period

The COBRA subsidy applies as of the first period of coverage starting on or after February 17, 2009 (the effective date of the 2009 Recovery Act). For most plans this was March 1, 2009. The subsidy is available for nine months. However, the nine-month subsidy period may end earlier if the individual becomes eligible for Medicare or another group health plan (such as one sponsored by a new employer).

Involuntary termination

One of the most important questions for purposes of the COBRA subsidy is what is involuntary termination? The IRS has explained that involuntary termination is severance from employment due to an employer's unilateral authority to terminate the employment. However, the IRS stresses that whether an involuntary termination has occurred depends on all the facts and circumstances.

Involuntary termination can also occur when an employer:

    • Declines to renew an employee's contract;
    • Furloughs an employee;
    • Reduces an employee's time to zero hours;
    • Tells an employee to "resign or be fired;"
    • Relocates its office or plant and an employee declines to relocate; or
    • Locks out its employees.

Extended election

Moreover, individuals involuntarily terminated between September 1, 2008 and February 18, 2009, but who declined COBRA coverage, have a second chance under the 2009 Recovery Act. They may be eligible to re-elect COBRA coverage and receive the subsidy.

Small businesses

COBRA continuation coverage and the subsidy are generally unavailable to employees of small businesses (businesses with 20 or fewer employees). However, some states have mini-COBRA laws that extend COBRA continuation coverage and the subsidy to workers at small businesses. COBRA continuation coverage and the subsidy are also unavailable if the employer terminates its health plan.

If you would like to know more about the COBRA premium subsidy, please contact out offices. We can help determine your eligibility for this assistance.

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